Selasa, 28 Februari 2012

Practical English For Seafarers

Practical English For Seafarers

Question and Answer
(Deck Officer)
Question :
How would you get a hold ready for cargo after discharging coal?
Answer :
Sweep the sides, bulkheads and ceiling dowe thoroughly, send the sweepings up out of the hold.
If the weather is suitable and there is time for drying purposes, rig the hose and wash well down. If not, sprinkle damp sawdust and sweep up clean. Lift the limber boards and clean out the bilges. Give them a coat of cement wash. See that the rose boxes are all clear. Replace limber boards and dunnage the hold. If the cargo is to be grain in bags or anything which requires special protection, cover all bare Iron with battens, burlap, dr mats. Rig shifting boards if necessary.

Question :
If you were stationed in the hold to look after the interests of the ship during the loading of general cargo, what would you consider it your duty to do?
Answer :
I would inspect the cases or packages as they came on board, and if any appeared to be damaged, notify the chief officer at once before he gives a receipt for it. I would see that any di­rections printed on any package were observed whilst being stowed, such as "this side to be sto­wed uppermost," or "stow away from the boilers," or "that hooks were not to be used for bale goods," etc. I would particularly guard against broaching or stealing of any cargo, and see that all was properly stowed and blocked off securely. Should not stow liquids above solids if it is possible to avoid doing so.

Question :
What would you look out for in the hold whilst discharging?
Answer :
As before, I would prevent any broaching, and see that no cargo was damaged by rough improper handling. If any cargo appeared to damaged I would call attention to it before disturbing it, so that, IF necessary, it may be surveyed.
Question :
If a vessel has 'tween decks,' would they require dunnaging?
Answer :
Yes, sufficient to keep the cargo clear of the deck, an inch or so for cases, and little more for bales or bags. I would lay it athwartships, so that in case of leakage the water might drain freely to the scuppers.
Question :
What special precautions would you take if you were going to load grain in bags for a long passage ?
Answer :
I would line the hold out with boards, and cover them with old sails, burlap, bagging, or mats. I would also cover up all bare iron likely to come in contact with the cargo, such as stanchions, mats, etc., and lash good shifting boards on both sides of the stanchions amidships, so as to form a fore-aft bulkhead, to prevent the cargo shifting.

Question :
If you were going to load a cargo of raw sugar or molasses, what would you be careful about in dunnaging the hold?
Answer :
To leave a free course for the drainage to run the pump well.
Question :
Where would you stow bags of sheep dip, or patent manures, or any other strong sme­lling cargo?
Answer :
Where it would not be possible for it to cause damage to other cargo by reason of the strong odour which it emits. Tea, for instance, is very liable to absorb any foreign smell; I should see therefore if any was to go in the ship that it was stowed in a different hold. The same precautions would apply to any food-stuffs such grain, flour, etc.

Question :
In loading a mixed cargo, how should It be generally distributed in the hold?
Answer :
The deadweight or heaviest portion of the cargo amidships in the main hold; Liquids, if any, in the ends at the bottom; bales, cases, etc., in the 'tween decks or upper part of lower hold.
Question :
How would you stow a ground tier of casks or barrels?
Answer :
I would stow each barrel fore and aft on two good beds of sufficient thickness to keep the bilge clear of the floor, and put quoins under each quarter. When stowing alongside the keelson, I would keep the bilge clear of it by putting stout pieces of wood, upright or vertical, between each quarter and the keelson.
I would see that when stowed the bung was on top, and be careful to keep the tier strictly level. After stowing the wing barrels, I would fill up any space left with dunnage in order to secure the cargo.

Question :
How would you stow the riding tiers?
Answer :
In the cantlines of the lower tier, each barrel lying on the quarters of four barrels below it.
Question :
How would you stow a graound tier of barrel containing dry goods, suds as cement, flour, etc.?
Answer :
I would dunnage the floor and then stow the barrels fore and aft, resting evenly on the dun­nage.
When placing them I would see that the pieces of wood forming the head were vertical, so as not be so liable to split with the weight of the riding tiers.
Note.- Barrels containing liquids are made so that the grain of the wood in the head is in a line with the bung, so that when stowed bung up the head pieces are vertical.

Question :
How would you stow barrels of tar, pitch, etc.?
Answer :
The sides of these barrels being straight I would not use beds, but stow them for and aft flat on the dunnage, bung up.
Question :
How many hoops are fitted on a good cask?
Answer :
Eight : Bilge, quarter, and two chime hoops at each end. The rivets of the hoops are in line with the bung.
Question :
How many heights of barrels, hogsheads, puncheons, pipes are allowed to stow?
Answer :
Eight of barrels, six of hogsheads, four of pun­cheons, and three of pipes.
Question :
Why should the number be limited?
Answer :
Because the lower tier, having to bear the weight of all above it, might be damaged If too may heights were stowed.
Question :
Where and how would you stow wines and spirits ?
Answer :
Where they are least likely to be pilfered by crew or cargo workers. Should see that cases were all well blocked up, and that cask were carefully stowed bung up and bilge free, and well quolned and secured.
Question :
How would you stow bale goods of manu­facture materials, etc.?
Answer :
On their flats, with mark and number uppermost, wing bales on their edges, mark and number inboard.
Question :
How would you stow cases of glass, slabs of marble or grindstones?
Answer :
On their edges; as they would then be less likely to get broken. Large cases of plate glass are best stowed athwartships.
Question :
Suppose you were loading grain, and a compartment in the lower hold was to be stowed Partly in bulk and partly in bags, how would you stow it?
Answer :
No more than three-fourths is allowed to be In bulk. I would take that in first and level it off, then cover it over with mats and boards and stow the bags on top. Fore-and-aft board must be not more than 4 feet apart. Athwartship one not more that 9 inches apart. The athwartship one must be on top of the fore-and-aft ones.

Practical English For Seafarers

The Meaning Of "Dead Reckoning"
During the Great War millions of the worst linguists on earth – the English- were called upon to fight in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and their great failing in knowing other tongues than their own has, perforce, induce the natives of foreign countries to pick up a little knowledge of the language of Tommy Atkins, so that, without any specially directed propaganda on our part, English has gained immensely during the war, and may be regarded as little short of the universal lan¬guage.
But the curious thing in all this is that English language is only a creation of yesterday.
Through the long-drawn centuries-from the days of the Ancient Britons down to the reformation it underwent a slow process of development, all the then known foreign tongues contributing to its formation.
One source of weakness in the process of the development of the language was the liability to misunderstand and to misconstrue the meanings of words and phrases used in foreign tongue, so that there are many expressions now in use which cannot be traced to their original foreign source, or the same word has two or more different meanings, many words have completely lost their original meaning because the early writers were indifferent in their modes of spelling, or in the use of abbreviations.
Perhaps one of the most remarkable of these posers is a word which is familiar to every English-speaking sailor in the Naval and Mercantile Marine services of the world, and is in perpetual use every day in the year. It has also been adopted by all British and American aviators as the word to use in navigating the aerial ocean overhead. Yet the word is a flat contradiction of what it is intended to mean, and of what was meant by the word used originally. In every ship's log, in all books of instruction, in all works on navigation, and in innumerable other publications, we find a special made of the "Dead Reckoning" on board ship. Why Dead ? It has been for a century or more a stumbling block to investigators.
One after another has attempted to arrive at some reasonable explanation of it, but has had to abandon the task as perfectly hopeless, for when they have marshaled all the facts at their disposal, it is always found that the operations which the word covers are anything but dead. They are, indeed, very much alive !
Whether it be on board a becalmed wind-jammer, on board a crawling tramp steamer, on board a 25-knot ocean liner, or on board a torpedo-boat destroyer, tearing through the sea at 36 knots, there is sleepless watch being kept by officers and men, the ship itself is never still, and in one form or another there is perpetual restless motion.
Still more absurd and inapplicable is the word when it is used for the change of position of an aeroplane, speeding through space at a velocity of 80, 100, 120, or 150 miles an hour. In all this violent activity we can conceive of nothing in the nature of death-like inactivity.
More than one hundred years ago, in 1819, Dr. Gregory, in his "Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, wrote : "Dead Reckoning, in navigation, the calculation made of a ship's place by means of the compass and log; the first serving to point out the course she sails on, and the other the distance run. From these two things given, the skilful mariner, making proper allowances without any observations of the sun or stars, to ascertain the ship's place tolerably well"
All dictionaries have failed to give a full account of the origin of the expression.
The late Sir James Murray gave three quotations of the expression, respectively 1613, 1760, 1840. He might have gone further back, to 1580. The writers of text books on Navigation, with one exception, have adoptedDead Reckoning without question, there being no obvious explanation of the sense of the word Dead. The present writer, having had a great deal to do with the logs of the Royal Navy, as far back as the middle of the seventeenth century, long ago discovered the real solution of the difficulty.
It was not until nearly the close of the eigh-teenth that printed log books were supplied by the admiralty. Long before that, officers were compelled to keep a journal, the form of which was only gradually develop. Originally it was on loose sheets of small size, and the columns, when introduced, had to be ruled by hand. The log of the Dreadnought, 1679, had 12 very narrow columns on page. For want of space the column for the latitude "deduce from the reckoning" was headed "Ded. Lat."
This abbreviation De., for deduced, has be-come corrupted into Dead, which has for gen-erations served to exercise in vain the most learned savants on two continents to get at its real, and in the result perfectly simple meaning. There is not a mariner who, on reading this explanation, will fail to realize that deduce is the only word which correctly expresses the method of obtaining his so called Dead Reckoning.
He deduces his position from the account he has kept, just as any tradesman deduces his profit or loss from his account.

Pilot : Good Morning, Sir!
Mate : Good Morning, Sir!
Pilot : Are you the chief officer?
Mate : Yes, I am. And you are the pilot, I suppose?
Pilot : Yes, sir. Are you all ready to make a start, Mr. Mate?
Mate : The captain will be here (at) any time, I expect
Pilot : well, single up your ropes then. Just keep the spring and a bow rope forward, and the buoy- rope and stern- rope-aft
Mate: All right, sir! Get all hands on the deck, second
Captain : Is the pilot on board, Mr. Mate?
Mate : Yes, sir, he is on the bridge already
Captain : Take in the Gangway and send a man to the wheel, second!
Pilot : Give them "Stand By", captain! Let go the bow- rope! Let go aft! A small kick ahead, captain! Stop her!
Check her up in the spring! Easy, don't break it!
Let go the spring! Heave away your buoy- rope!
Look out for the pier- head!
Stand by with a couple of fenders!
Easy now! just pick up the slack!
Let go, and heave in
Let us (=Let's) know when the propeller is clear!
Pilot :
All right, sir. Slow astern, captain!
Port your helm, hand over.
Full speed astern! stop her! Full ahead! Shift your helm! Half speed! Ease your helm! Steady! As she goes now!
Mind your steering! don,t look too much at the compas!
Get a good mark on shore!
We'll have to slow down when we pass the ferry-boat station, captain.
Slow speed! Dead slow!
Let her go full now, captain!
Pilot : A lovely afternoon, Mr. Mate, isn't?
Mate : Yes, it is, but too hot.
Pilot : Well, you might have some breeze when you get outside
Mate : Have you had your supper, Pilot?
Pilot : No, sir. Just tell the steward to give me a cup of coffee and a couple of sandwiches. Will you, please?
Mate : Certainly, I will
Pilot : (To the man at the wheel) What's her head now?
Helmsman : South eight-two (degrees) West, sir
Pilot : Keep her west by south! I have to ask you some question, Mr. Mate
Mate : Of course, Pilot. What do you want to know?
Pilot : What's her gross tonnage?
Mate : Forty-seven ninety-six (tons)
Pilot : And her nett?
Mate : Twenty-eight fourteen.
Pilot : And what's her draught?
Mate : Twenty-five three and a half (25 feet 3 inches and 1/2)
Pilot : Who is your agent (=Broker)?
Mate : Mr. such a one
Pilot : Thank you, sir. I have to put this on my bill. Nice and clean these new diesel-ships, Mr. Mate
Mate : Yes, sir. We took her out from the ship-yard only six months ago
Pilot : Where was she built?
Mate : In Copenhagen by B & W. Engine & Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd.
Pilot : Has she never been in drydock yet?
Mate : Yes, sir. we had to dock at Boston after th last trip across
Pilot : Any repairs to do?
Mate : Wll, not much. Besides ordinary cleaning and painting (of) the bottom, there were some leaking rivets in the forepeak and No.1 tank to shift of
Pilot : Is that so! In new ship like this?
Mate : Oh, We had a very heavy weather. Ballast trip across the north Atlantic in wintertime you know
Pilot : Yes, sir. I know them. How much does she carry? ( What is her dead-weight?)
Mate : Eighty-five fifty
Pilot : Except bunkers?
Mate : No, sir. Bunker, water, stores, and provision included
Pilot : What's her daily consumption of fuel?
Mate : Ten tons (per day (=10 t. a day))
Pilot : Not much for this ship, I should say. And she might run fast too?
Mate : Fourteen now she is light, eleven and a half when loaded
Pilot : What is her bunker capacity (=her capacity of fuel oil)?
Mate : About thirteen hundred tons or eight thousands barrels, and that means a cruising radius of more than thirty-five thousand (nautical) miles
Pilot : Well, Mr. Mate. Please tell "the old man" that we are at the pilot-boat in about ten minutes. Have the ladder and boat rope ready on your starboard side. And (remember) a heaving line for the hand bag
Pilot : (jumping into the boat) : All clear, Captain! Happy Voyage!

Practical English For Seafarers

The Pilot Comes on Board
Captain : Good morning, pilot!
Pilot : Good morning, captain! Give her full ahead!
(To the helsman): Port a bit! Ease your helm! Steady her on East half North.
(To the captain) : Is the single- or twin- screwed?
Captain : She is single- screwed.
Pilot : What (= How much) does she run?
Captain : Twelve or thirteen knots, I suppose.
Pilot : Then I think you will be there in about three in about three hours. The tide just coming out now. Where do you come from?
Captain : From Antwerp
Pilot : Good morning, sir!
Mate : Good morning,sir!
Pilot : Are you the chief officer?
Mate : No, I am the second.
Pilot (To the helmsman): Keep her East three quarter North.
(To the mate) : Your compasses seem to have 2 or 3 degrees' deviation.

Mate : That's right, just what we have got for these easterly courses.
Pilot : She is steering pretty well, this ship, Mr. Mate.
Mate : Yes, she is.
Pilot (To the helmsman) : Starboard half point! Watch her head now, Don't let her come the Least thing to port! Starboard! Ease your helm! Steady as she goes! Keep that white light just a little bit on your port bow! Port your helm! Midship! Port a little more! Ease! Steady so!
(To the mate) : Half speed! I want a man on the forecastle- head now, Mr. Mate. Tell them down below that we shall be there in about twenty minutes. Slow! Stop her! Give three long blast! (The captain is now entering the bridge to take charge of the ship)
Pilot (To the captain) : We might have to (go to an) anchor, captain (= drop the anchor, to bring up); I can't see the harbour pilot yet.
(To the mate on the forecastle- head) : Standby your starboard anchor!
(To the captain) : Full speed astern! Port your helm. Hard over! – Midship! Stop her, sir! Slow ahead! Stop her!
(To the mate on the forecastle) : Stand by your starboard anchor
(To the captain) : Full speed astern! Port your helm, hard over! – Midship! Stop her, sir ! Slow ahead! Starboard ! Stop her!
(To the mate) : Let go (the anchor)! Veer out to forty- five fathoms on the Wind lass! How is the chain?
Mate : The chain grows astern, sir.
Pilot : All right, sir. Give her slow astern, captain!
Mate : The chain is right up and down.
Pilot : Stop your engines, captain!
(Tothe mate) : Hold on your chain! How much in the hawse pipe now?
Mate : Forty- five in the water, sir!
Pilot : Right you are; I think she has got enough. (The harbour pilot (or dock pilot) takes the ship alongside the wharf).
Pilot : Give them" stand by" down below, captain! Heave away the chain, chief! Heave short!
Mate : The anchor is aweigh, pilot.
Pilot : All right, sir.- Slow ahead, captain!- Starboard, just a little bit, steady!- Stop Her! Get your bow- rope ashore! Have a good manila ready for the tug, Mr. Second! On your port side! Hold on, make fast the tug- rope!
Heave away the (back-) spring!
Easy (= Gentle), Don't break it! Finish your engines, captain! (= That will do the e.) ou'll have to shift your stern- rope to the next post, she has to come about fifty feet more ahead! Heave away forward ! slack away aft!
Vast heaving forward, hold on aft. Tie her up like that!
Put the bight ashore again when your wire is fast, the current is very strong here at time.- Please, sign this bill, captain?
Captain : Certainly, pilot. Do you want a drink?
Pilot : Yes, please.
Captain : What do you drink?
Pilot : Gin, sir.
Captain : Here you are, sir; help yourself! Good luck, pilot!
Pilot : Good luck!- Very fine stuff, sir.
Captain : Another one?
Pilot : No thanks. So long!

Rabu, 15 Februari 2012


1.  Jelaskan bagaimana caranya agar muat bongkar dikapal dapat dilaksanakan secara cepat dan sistematis?
Jawab : Sebelum kapal tiba di pelabuhan pertama disuatu negara, harus tersedia encana pemuatan dan pembongkaran (storage plant) yang terdiri dari rencana pemuatan awal dan akhir.

2.  Muatan-muatan tertentu, oleh karena sifatnya berbahaya, bentuknya    khusus/karena  alasan palka sudah penuh,sehingga dimuat di deck.
a.   Sebutkan persyratan umum jika muatan dideck?
                   Jawab :
-      Harus diperhitungkan kekuatan geladaknya (Deck Load Capacity)
-      Apabila muatan deck mudah rusak harus diberi tutup tempat.
-      Muatan harsus dilashing
b.   Apa yang dimaksud load deck capasity ?
Kemampuan suatu geladak untuk menahan beban yang ada diatasnya dinyatakan dalam ton/m3
c.   Dimana data load capasity tersebut anda dapatkan dikapal dan bagaimana cara menghitungnya jika datanya telah hilang ?
Jawab :
¬ Data tersebut tertera pada blue pin (buku biru yang berisi semua data-data ukuran kapal yang ditetapkan oleh suatu birokrasifikasi
¬ Cara menghitung jika datanya hilang dengan rumus :

               DLC =  ,  DLC =

                                                            Ket :   H       = tinggi deckdalam meter
                                                                      h        = tinggi maximum muatan dlm meter
                                                                      sf       = sf dalam Cu.m
                                                                      1,4     = sf standart

4. Sebutkan keuntungan dan kerugian pemuatan peti kemas dengan dibandingkan pemuatan kapal-kapal konvensional ?
Jawab :

Keuntungan :

-    Muat bongkar dapat dilakukan dengan cepat

-      Kerusakan barang-barang yang diangkut dapat ditekan sekecil mungkin
-      Kehilangan(pencurian) dapat ditekan sekecil mengkin.
-      Pengawasan barang(control)baik ole pemilik barang (owner) pengirim barang (shipper)maupun penerima barang (consignee) lebih mudah
     Kerugian :      
                    -    Pengoperasian lebih mahal
-      Harus ditangani tenaga ahli (profesional)
-      Memerlukan penanganan khusus.        

3. Kapal tenker memuat minyak sebanyak : 160.000 American Barel, pada suhu rata –rata : 29 c. Api Gravity pada suhu tersebut : 26,8, jika diketahui 1 America n Barrel :0,159 CBM,dan koefisisen koreksi BJ :0,000690 / cc.hitung berat minyak yang dimuat tersebut ?
     Jawab :
          W = V x bj
          BjI     = pada suhu 15,6 c =                                        Bj2     = Bj1 – coefisien corr (T2-T1)
          Bj2 (29 c)     = 0,893872 - 0,000690 (29-15,6)
                              = 0,884626
          V        = 160.000 x 0,159 m = 25440 m 3
          W       = V x Bj
                    = 25440 m3 x 0,884626
                    = 22504,9 ton

5.  Loading displacement          = 9.050 ton
Light displacement              = 2.550 ton
Bale capasity                       = 7000 m3
Operating load on board      = 500  ton
Kapal dimuati = peti-peti sf = 4,0 m3/ton
                                Besi  sf     = 0,5 m3/ton
Broken stowage         = 10%
Freight   peti-peti US$ 40,- per ton
Besi US$50, - per ton
Ditanyakan : a. Berapa ton masing-masing dapat dimuat hingga kapal mancapai kadaan full and down ?
                             b.  Berapa jumlah fright seluruh muatan ?

Jawab : Bale Capasity = 7000 m3

a.   BS = 10% x 7000        = 700   m3
RM.eff (V)                    = 6300 m3
Loaded displacement= 9.050
Light displancement  = 2.550
        DWT                   = 6.500
         OPL                    =    500
         DWT                  = 6.000
A + B                = 6000   x   4,0
4,0 + 4,0           = 6300        1
4,0 A + 4,0 B    = 24.000
4,0 A + 0,5 B    =   6.300
     0   + 3,5 B    = 17.700
                B       = 17.700  = 5057,14
          b. A + B       = 6000
                    A        = 6000 - 5057,14
                              = 942,86
               Fright A = 40 x 942,86        = US$ 37.714,4

               Fright B = 50 x 5057,14       = US$ 252,857
               Total fright                           = US$ 290.571,4


1.  Sebutkan lima prinsip pemadatan dikapal dan jelaskan dengan singkat ?
Jawab :
a.   Melindungi anak kapal dan buruh
-      agar mereka selamat dlam melaksanakan kegiatan dengan mengunakan alat keselamatan kerja secara benar
b.   Melindungi kapal
-      agar kapal tetap selamat selama muat bongkar maupun dalam pelayaran, misalnya : menjaga stabilitas kapal.
c.    Melindungi muatan.
-      pada waktu pemuatan, bongkar dan selama dlam pelayaran muatan harus ditangani secara baik untuk mencegah kerusakan muatan.
d.    Pemuatan dan pembongkaran muatan harus cepat dan sistematis
-      adanya rencana pemuatan dan pembongkaran (stowage plan)
e.     Penggunaan ruang muat semaksimal mungkin.
-      dalam melakukan pemuatan harus diusahakan agar semua ruang terisi penuh oleh muatan/kapal dapat muat sampai maksimal

2.   Unuk pemuatan dan pembongkaran muatan kapal niaga dengan lancar perlu dibuat suatu rencana yang baik sebelum pemuatan dimulai.
a.   Faktor-faktor apakah yang untuk membuat stowage plan itu ?
-      Berat dan jenis muatan
-      Pelabuhan bongkar ntuk masing-masing muatan,serta pelabuhan muat
-      Bentuk muatan dan jumlahnya.
b.   Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Hatch List ?
Jawab :
-      Daftar muat yang sudah dimuat di palka
c.   Apakah pula yang dimaksud dengan Bay hatch?
Jawab :
-      Bagan muatan container secara membujur, melintang dan tegak membujur ditandai dengan nomor Bay, mulai dari depan belakang, dengan cetakan nomor ganjil untuk ukuran container 20 kaki, genap container ukuran 40 kaki, melintang dengan ditandai nomor Row dimulai dari tengah dan dilihat dari arah belakang

3. a.   Apakah keuntungan dan kerugian pemuatan peti kemas dibanding dengan pemuatan kapal-kapal konvensional ?
Jawab :
Keuntungan :      
-    Muat bongkar dapat dilakukan dengan cepat
-      Kerusakan barang-barang yang diangkut dapat ditekan sekecil mungkin
-      Kehilangan(pencurian) dapat ditekan sekecil mengkin.
-      Pengawasan barang(control)baik oleh pemilik barang (owner) pengirim barang (shipper)maupun penerima barang (consignee) lebih mudah
-    Pengoperasian lebih mahal
-      Harus ditangani tenaga ahli (profesional)
-      Memerlukan penanganan khusus.        

b.   Apakah syarat-syarat peti kemas sesuai ISO ?
Jawab :
1.   Mengenai ukuran dan berat bruto suatu conctainer
Meliputi : kode,tinggi,lebar,panjang dan berat maksimum container dan cargo
2.   Mengenai sarana pengangkutannya,
Dengan metode kunci putar(twist lock) yang dipasangkan pada sudut-sudutnya untuk kepentingan mengangkat.
3.   Mengenai pemberian merkah-merkahnya meliputi nomor kode, nomor seri, tanda pemilik, berat maksimum pada tempat tertentu yang mudah dikenal
4.   Container harus dapat disusun sebanyak 6 susun dalam keadaan full load tanpa menunjukan perubahan-perubahan berarti.
c. Apakah yang dimaksud TEU dan FEU ?
-      TEU (Twenty feet Equivalent Unit)
               adalah : unit pedoman peti kemas ukuran 20 kaki
-      FEU ( Fourty Feet Equifalent Unit)
               adalah : unit pedoman peti kemas ukuran 40 kaki

4. Kapal tiba dipelabuahan dengan sarat rata-rata ; 5,5 m dengan remaining space :
    1460 Cum dan sisa DWT : 750 ton. Kapal tersebut akan melakukan kegiatan sbb :
-      membongkar muatan A : 600 ton , sf : 0,9 Cum/ton
-      memuat B               , sf 2,5 Cum/ton sebanyak-banyaknya dng BS : 7,5 %
Hitunglah :
a.   berapa ton muatan B dapat dimuat
b.   Apakah kapal mencapai full dan down , jelaskan?
c.    Jika TPC : 15 hitung rata-rata sarat kapal selesai kegiatan.
Jawab :
     a. Dibongkar 600 ton          = 600 x 0,9  = 40 m3
            Harus memuat  B              = 
b.   Menurut volume maka ruangan cukup 
Volume untuk muatan  B        = berat B x sf B
                                                            = 740 x 2,5
                                                            = 1850 Cum
          Sisa bobot   = sisa DWT – Berat B
                              = 750 – 740 = 10 ton
          Muatan dalam palka penuh (cukup)
          Full but not down
c.  Sarat awal                       = 5,50 m
          Penambahan DWT          =   = - 9,3 cm+
          Sarat rata-rata sesuai kegiatan        = 5,59 m

5.  Kapal dengan Bale capacity =2400m3 dan DWT = 1700 ton. Dikapal telah ada Fo,Fw. Dan store = 200 ton akan dimuat hingga mencapai full & down.
Pemuatan kuningan dengan sf = 0,850 m3/ton, peti-perti dengan sf = 3,05 m3/ton.

Bila BS = 5%, Berapa ton masing-masing dapat dimuat ?

Jawab :
          Bale capacity        = 2400 Cum
          BS=5% x 2400       =  120 Cum
          RM.eff (V)               = 2280 Cum
          DWT            = 1700 ton
          Fo + Rw +5t =   200 ton
              C.DWT     = 1500 ton

          A+B   =1500                              x 3,050        3,050 A + 3,050 B =4575
          0,850A+3,050B  = 2280                   1           0,850 A + 3,050 B =2280
                                                                                2,200 A + 0            =2295

                                                                      A   =
                                                                           = 1043,18 ton
                                                                      A + B = 1500
                                                                      1043,18  +  B         = 1500
                                                                                         B         = 1500 – 1043,18
                                                                                                    = 456,82 ton


1. Dalam rangka melindungi muatan,beberapa jenis pekerjaan mengunakan polka.
a.   Jelaskan bagaimana mengatur peranginan palka ini ?
Jawab :
-      Berikan ventilasi jika kelembaman udara didalam ruangan palka lebih besar dari kelembaman udara luar.
-      Berikan ventilasi jika titik embun udara didalam ruang palka lebih tinggi dari titi embun udara luar
-      Hindarkan ventilasi jika kelembaban udara diruang polka lebih kecil dari kelembaban udara luar
-      Hindarkan ventilasi jika titik embun udara diruang palka lebih rendah dari titik embun udara luar
b.   Terangkan hubungan kelembaman udara palka (Relative humidity) dengan peranginan palka ?
Jawab :
Bahwa air yang timbul didalalam ruang polka karena udara dalam ruang polka sudah jenuh, yang ahirnya timbul kondensasi.

2.  Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan :
a.   Ullage pada pemuatan liquid cargo didalam tangki :
Jarak tegak dari permukaan cairan didalam tangki hingga tanktop.
b.   TEU pada pemuatan peti kemas (container)
Jawab :
TEU (Twenty Feet Equivalent Unit), adalah : unit padanan peti kemas ukuran 20 kaki
c.   PRE – SLING pada pemuatan genator,
Persiapan tali-tali (sling) sebelum melansing muatan.

3.  Hitung stowage faktor dari muatan-muatan berikut ini :
a.   muatan peti-petian panjang 1,25 m x 0,5 m x 0,25 m dengan berat 250 kg tiap peti
b.   muatan drum O 0,6 m tinggi 1m, dengan berat 400 kg tiap drum ?
     Jawab :
          a. SF =            1              x  volume tiap peti
                         berat tiap peti
                    =        1              x   0,156 m3
                    = 0,62 m3

b. Volume drum
     V   = p . r2 x t
          = 3,14 x 0,6  x 1
          = 3,14 x 0,36 x 1
          = 1,1304 m3
SF      =         1              x  volume drum
             Berat tiap peti
=         1            x  1.304
          =  2,83 m3

4.  a. Sebutkan 2 jenis ukuran kontainer ?
Jawab :
Container ukuran 20 fet dan 40 fet
b. Apakah kentungan dan kerugian pengangkutan muatan dengan container dibanding dengan general cargo ?
Jawab :
Keuntungan :
-    Muat bongkar dapat dilakukan dengan cepat
-      Kerusakan barang yang diangkat dapat ditekan sekecil mungkin
-      Kehilangan (pencairan ) dapat ditekan sekecil mingkin
-      Pengawasan (control) baik oleh pemilik barang(otoner) pengirim barang maupun penerima barang lebih mudah
Kerugian :
-      Pengoperasian lebih mahal
-      Harus ditangani tenaga ahli
-      Memerlukan penanganan khusus

5.  a. Sebutkan 9 class muatan berbahaya sesuai solas 1974 ?
         Jawab : Class :
1      : Eksplosive (bahan peledak)
2      : Gas yang wampatkan
3      : Inflamable Liqiud (cairan yang mudah menyala)
4      : Inflamable  solid or subtancer ( benda adat yang mudah menyala)
5         : Oxodixing subtances  (zat yang mengandung zat asam )
6         : Aktif berbahaya
7      : Radio aktive subtances (zat radio aktif bebhaya)
8      :  Zat corrosive = zat bahan penyebab karat
9      : Semua zat yang berdasarkan pengalaman memiliki sifat berbahaya, mis : calcium oxide, alumunium nitrade, pupuk organik, dll.
b. Jelaskan maksud segregation table ini
Jawab :

6.  Sebuah kapal tiba dipelabuhan dengan remainaing space : 2000 Cum dan Cargo DWT : 1500 ton. Akan dimuat plywood SF=2,5 sebanyal-banyaknya dengan BS =10%
Hitung :  a. Jumlah plywood yang dapat dimuat
          b. Apakah kapal mencapai full dan Down? Jelaskan
     Jawab :
     a.   R. Spacce             = 2000Cum
           BS=10% x 2000    =  200 Cum
           R.m.eff (V)            = 1800 Cum
           Berat = volume    = 1800  =  720 ton

                           SF            2,5

c.    Jumlah plywood yang dimuat 720 ton
Volume yang dibutuhkan 1800 Cum
Ruang palka penuh tetapi draft belum maksimal
Masih ada sisa bobot 780 ton
Full but not down


1.  Tuliskan jenis-jenis muatan yang saudara ketahui ditinjau dari sufat/mutunya?
    Jawab :
- muatan basah         -  muatan berbau           -  muatan berbahaya
- muatan bersuh       -  muatan kering            -  muatan peka

2.  Pelaksanaan kegiatan bongkar muat berasaskan pada prinsip-prinsip memuat.

Jelaskanlah apa apa yang dimaksud prinsip memuat melindungi “muatan”

Jawab :
-      Bahwa pihak kapal (carrier) bertanggungjawab kesalamatan dan keutuhan muatan sejak muatan itu dimuat sampai muatan itu dibongkar

3. Hitunglah berapa besar volume ruangan yang dibutuhkan jika hendak memuat muatan 200 ton yang berupa peti-peti denagn ukuran tiap peti 60 ccm x 50 cm x 40 cm dimana berat tiap peti = 60 kg BS = 5 %
     Jawab :
          SF =       1                x   volume tiap peti

                  Berat tiap peti

               =          1      x  0,6  x  0,5  x  0,4 m   =   1  x  0,12m3 = 2m3
                         0,060                             0,060
          volume  = 200 x 2 m3   = 400 m3
                          400 m3 x BS = 400 x 5%     = 380 m3

4.  Sebuah ruang muat memiliki sisa volume=520 m3 sisa daya angkut 250 ton. Ruangan ini akan diisi penuh dengan muatan peti-peti berukuran 80 cm x 40 ccm x 30 cm dan berat tiap peti = 50 kg. Hitunglah berapa BS- yang terjadi
Jawab :
          Diket = V = 520 m3
                       V = 480 m3
          SF      =         1              x  volume  tiap peti =    1   x 0,096 m3
                      Berat tiap peti                                 
= 1,92 m3

          BS     =  V - V   x  100 % = 520 – 480  x 100%       = 7,7%

                          V                                520

          Jadi BS nya = 7,7 %

5.  Sebuah kapal memiliki volume sisa 2020 m3 dan sisa daya angkut : 1300 ton. Akan dimuati hingga penuh dengan muatan A dan b, dimana muatan A berupa berupa peti-peti berukuran 90 cm x 120 cm x 40 cm dan berat tiap petinya = 60 kg. Untuk muatan A ini BS diperhitungkan 5 %. Selanjutnya juga memuat muatan B yang memiliki SF = 0,76 dan untuk muatan B ini, BS diperhitungkan 8 %. Hitunglah
a.   Jumlah berat (ton) masing-masing muatan yang dapat dimuat
b.   Berapa jumlah potong (kolle)masing-masing muatan tersebut.
     Jawab :
          SFA   =    1    x  0,90 x1,200 x 0,40 m3
          SFB   = 0,76
          A + B = 1300  x  7,2                            7,2 A + 7,2   B        = 9360
        7,2 A + 0,76 B  = 13 % x 2020               7,2 A + 0,76 B      = 1757,4
                                                                                6,44  B         = 7602,6
                                                                                           B       = 7602,6 = 1180,5 ton
          PA = v (1 – B5) = 2020(0,95)      = 4442 colly

                       VA           0,432

          PB = v (1 – B5) = 2020 . 0,92     = 1880 colly
                    VB              0,988
          A + B = 1300
          A + 1180,05 = 1300
                         A   = 1300 – 1180,5   = 119,5 ton


1.  a. Apakah yang dimaksud bagan pemuatan (stowage plan) ?
Jawab : suatu bagan kapal dimana muatan ditempatkan dilengkapi data tujuan,jumlah, berat muatan serta pelabuhan muatannya masing-masing.
    b.  Siapakah yang bertanggung jawab untuk merencanakan pemuatan diatas kapal ?

         Jawab : muatan satu      

c.  Apakah perbedaan antara tentative stowage plan dengan final stowage plan ?
Jawab :
-    Tentative stowage plan : rencana awal yang sifatnya apabila terjadi perubahan muatan masih bisa dilakukan.
-      Final stowage plan : rencana pemuatan akhir

2.  a. Sebuah kapal container mempunyai daya angkut 600 TEU’S. Apa yang dimaksud dengan istilah ini ?
         Jawab :
Sebuah kapal container mempunyai daya angkut 600 unit peti kemas ukuran 20 kaki (feet)
b.  Bagaimanakah persiapan untuk memuat muatan berat diatas geladak ?
Jawab :
-      Kekuatan geladak harus diperhitungkan untuk dapat menahan muatan
-      Siapkan peralatan melasing muatan tersebut
-      Atur supaya muatan diatas geladak tidak menganggu navigasi kapal dari anjungan.

3. a. Bagaimana prinsip-prinsip muatan menurut pendapat anda ?
Jawab :
1.   Melindungi anak kapal dan buruh
-      agar mereka selamat dlam melaksanakan kegiatan dengan mengunakan alat keselamatan kerja secara benar
2.   Melindungi kapal
-      agar kapal tetap selamat selama muat bongkar maupun dalam pelayaran, misalnya : menjaga stabilitas kapal.
3.   Melindungi muatan.
-      pada waktu pemuatan, bongkar dan selama dlam pelayaran muatan harus ditangani secara baik untuk mencegah kerusakan muatan.
4.   Pemuatan dan pembongkaran muatan harus cepat dan sistematis
-      adanya rencana pemuatan dan pembongkaran (stowage plan ) menggunaan ruang muat semaksimal mungkin.
-      Dalam melakukan pemuatan harus diusahakan agar semua ruang terisi penuh oleh muatan/kapal dapat muat sampai maksimal
     b.  Apakah kegunaan dari dunnage/terapan ?
-      Sebagai alas pada lantai palka
-      Sebagai pemisah antara muatan
-      Sebagai pemisah antara dinding palka dengan muatan
-      Untuk membentuk terowongan aliran udara lebar antara tumpukan muatan

4.  Sebuah kapal dengan DWT : 6.096,3 ton, mempunyai bahan bakar 609.63 ton, air tawar dan air ballast609,63 ton, perbekalan sebanyak 406,42 ton, kapal rtersebut memiliki palkah dengan volume masing-masing :

Palka   I : 1,416 m3              Palka II  : 1.699,20 m3

Palka III : 1.699,2 m3 Palka IV : 2.263,60 m3
Akan dimuati peti SF : 0,5574 dan Gencar SF : 2,787

Ditanyakan :
Berapa ton masing-masig muatan pada tiap-tiap palka agar kapal full & down sesuai konstruksi kapal ?
Jawab :

Cargo DWT : 6096,30 –609,30-609,63-406,42        = 4470,62 ton

Ruang Efektif : 1416 =1699,20+1699,20+2265,60  = 7080 m3

A +  B                          = 4470,62 x  2,787  2,787.A    +  2,787.B     =12459,617
0,5574.A + 2,787. B      = 7080                     0,5574.A  +  2,787.B         = 7080        -                                                                           2,2296.A   +       0            = 5379,617
                                                                                                                        = 2412,817 ton.

A          +       B      = 4470,62

2412,817 +   B       = 4470,62
                      B      = 4470,62 -  2412,817
                              =  2057,803 ton
PALKA  I      muatan A = 1416 x 2412,817   = 482,5634 ton
          muatan B = 1416  x 2057,803 = 411,5606 ton
PALKA  II     muatan A = 1699,2 x 2412,817 = 579,0761 ton
         muatan B = 1699,2  x 2057,803 = 501,0727 ton

PALKA  III   muatan A = 579,0761 ton

                   muatan B = 501,0727 ton
PALKA IV    muatan A = 2412,817-482,5634-579,0761 =772,1014 ton
                   muatan B = 2057,803-411,5606-501,0727,501,0727 = 644,097 ton

5.  Sebuah kapal berada di Banjarmasin (daerah permanent tropik) dengan density 1,008 dan mempunyai sarat pada saat itu 6,477 m
Data Kapal :
Displacement   = 15.240,75    ton

TPC rata-rata   =        18,50    ton

Summer draft =          7,315 ton
Ditanya : berapa ton muatan maximum yang dapat dimuat agar tidak over draft    ?
Jawab : DWA   = FWA x Bj laut – BJ payau
                                        Bj laut – Bj tawar
                              = S. DisplBj laut – Bj payau
                                 40.TPC      Bj laut – Bj tawar      
                              = 15.240,75 x 1,025 – 1.008 = 20,60 x 0,68
                                 40 x 18,50    1,025 – 1,000
                              =14,000 cm 
Summer draft =                                       =   731,5 cm

Tropic correction 1/48 x 731,5 cm          =   15,24 cm +

Draft tropic                                              = 746,74 cm

DWA                                                         =  14,00 cm +

Sarat rata-rata setelah muat                 = 760,74 cm

Sarat rata-rata sebelum muat               =  647,7 cm –

Selisih sarat                                             = 113,04 cm

Perubahan berat = 113,04 x 18,50          = 2091,24 ton
Muatan maximum yang dimuat             = 2091,24 ton


1.  Jelaskan arti istilah-istilah tersebut dibawah ini :
a.   Broken stowage : prosentase ruang muatan yang tidak terisi oleh muatan karena bentuk dan jenis muatan tersebut.
b.   Stowage plan : suatu bagian kapal dimana muatan ditempatkan. Dilengkapi data tujuan, jumlah, berat muatan serta pelabuhan muatnya masing-masing.
c.    Stowage factor : jumlah ruangan efektif dalam m3 yang digunakan untuk memadat muatan seberat 1 ton
d.   Full dan down : suatu keadaan dimana kapal dimuati hingga seluruh ruang muat penuh dan mencapai sarat maximum yang diijinkan.

2.  a. Sebutkan batasan-batasan/sarat-sarat yang harus dipenuhi sehingga peti kemas tersebut layak untuk sarana pemuatan.
Jawab :
w Secara fisik mempunyai sifat-sifat yang tetap dan harus cukup kuat untuk dapat digunakan berulang kali
w Dilengkapi peralatan khusus sehingga mampu untuk dipindah-pindahkan dari satu jenis alat pengangkutan ke jenis alat pengangkutan lainnya dengan cepat dan mudah
w Dirancang sedemikian rupa sehingga mudah untuk diisi barang dan mudah untuk mengosongkannya
b.   Jelaskan pengertian dari “Bay, Row”, dan Tier” dalam menstawage peti kemas
Jawab :
w Bay adalah tanda nomor membujur, mulai dari depan ke belakang dengan catatan nomor ganjil container 20 kaki genap container 40 kaki
w Row adalah tanda nomor melintang, dimulai dari tengah dan dilihat dari arah belakang
-      ke kanan – Row 01,03,05,07,09 dst
-      ke kiri – Row 02,04,06,08,010 dst
w Tier adalah tanda nomor tegak, dimulai dengan angka-angka :
-      on deck – Tier 82,84,86,88
-      in hold – Tier 02,04,06,08
c.   Dalam pengepakan muatan peti kemas, digunakan sistem FCL/FCL dan LCL/LCL. Jelask apa maksudnya ?
Jawab :
w FCL/FCL (Full Container Load)
Adalah : container yang berisi muatan milik satu shipper
w LCL/LCL (Less than Container Load)
Adalah : container yang berisi muatan milik beberapa shipper

3.  a.  Apa kegunaan peranginan di atas kapal, sebutkan !
         Jawab :
w Mengalirkan udara bersih/kering ke dalam ruang palka
w Mengeluarkan udara lembab, kotor, panas, bau, gas dlsb dari ruang palka
     b.  Ada berapa macam peranginan yang biasa digunakan, sebutkan !
         Jawab : ada 2 macam yaitu sistem alam dan sistem buatan.
c.  Jelaskan dengan gambar salah satu jenis pengetahuan yang anda ketahui!
         Jawab: Dengan meletakkan corong korsel kedua duanya ke bawah angin jadi ruangan tetap dingin karena panasnya diambil. Cara peranginan alam ini tergantung pada udara luar.


4. Sebuah kapal berada di Pelabuhan Banjarmasin (daerah permanen tropic) dengan dencity 1,008 dan mempunyai sarat rata-rata 6,477m. Data-data kapal:
Summer displacement        = 15,240,75 ton

TPC rata-rata                       = 18,5 ton

Summer draft                      = 7,325 m
Berapa ton maximum muatan yang dapat dimuat agar nanti di laut tidak over drat ?
Jawab : DWA   = FWA x Bj laut – BJ payau
                                          Bj laut – Bj tawar
                              = S. DisplBj laut – Bj payau
                                40.TPC     Bj laut – Bj tawar      
                              = 15.240,75 x 1,025 – 1.008 = 20,60 x 0,68
                                40 x 18,50    1,025 – 1,000
                              =14,000 cm 
Summer draft =                                       =   731,5 cm

Tropic correction 1/48 x 731,5 cm          =    15,24 cm +

Draft tropic                                              = 746,74 cm

DWA                                                         = 14,00 cm +

Sarat rata-rata setelah muat                 = 760,74 cm

Sarat rata-rata sebelum muat               =  647,7 cm –

Selisih sarat                                             = 113,04 cm

Perubahan berat = 113,04 x 18,50          = 2091,24 ton
Muatan maximum yang dimuat   = 2091,24 ton

5. Sebuah kapal mempunyai sisa daya muat 1200 ton, dek agen disediakan muatan  kapal berupa peti-peti sebanyak 2500 ms ton (i ms ton = 1,08 m3) setiap peti mempunyai volume = 0, 648 m3 dengan berat 304,8 kg
Jelaskan dengan perhitungan, apakah muatan tersebut dapat dimuat seluruhnya ?
Bila tidak, berapa ton sisa muatan yang tidak dapat dimuat ?
Jawab :

Volume yang diperlukan peti        = 2500 x 1,08 m3

                                                       = 2700 m3
SF muatan =     1      x 0,648 m3 = 2,1 m3
Volume   = berat x SF
              = 1200 x 2,1 = 2520 m3
Berat = Volume = 2700 = 1285,7 ton
                  SF          2,1
Volume tidak cukup/kurang  = 180 m3
Muatan tidak dapat dimuat semua  = 1285,7 –1200 = 85,7 ton
Muatan yang tidak dapat dimuat  = 85,7 ton